1. Observe and investigate defects: there are many kinds of electrical defects. For example, the same type of defect may have different defect phenomena, and different types of defects may have the same defect phenomenon. The identity and diversity of this defect phenomenon bring chaos to finding defects. However, the defect phenomenon is the fundamental basis for the maintenance of electrical defects and the starting point for the maintenance of electrical defects. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully observe and analyze the defect phenomenon, find out the most important and typical aspects of the defect phenomenon, and find out the time, address, environment, etc.
2. Analyze the causes of defects. At the beginning, determine the scale of defects and reduce the parts of defects: analyzing the causes of defects according to the defects is the key to electrical troubleshooting. The foundation of the analysis is the fundamental theory of electrical and electronics, the full understanding of the structure, principle and function of electrical equipment, and the combination of the fundamental theory of electrical and electronics and the actual shortcomings. There may be many reasons for the occurrence of an electrical defect. It is important to find the most important reason among many reasons;
3. Identify the defective part - identify the defective point: identify the defective part as the most important part and result of thrifty repair of electrical defects. Judging the defective parts can be understood as judging the defective points of the equipment, such as short-circuit points, damaged components, etc. it can also be understood as judging the variation of some operating parameters, such as voltage fluctuation, three-phase unevenness, etc. The conclusion of the defect position is based on the careful investigation and detailed analysis of the defect phenomenon. In this process, we often have to use a variety of means and methods to be introduced below. In the process of completing the above operations, the accumulation of practical experience plays an important role.
Eight skills of electrical troubleshooting
1. Understand the circuit principle and determine the maintenance plan: when the electrical system of an equipment has defects, do not rush to disassemble it. First, understand the phenomenon, pass, scale and cause of the defects of the electrical equipment. Understand the basic operating principle of the equipment and electrical system, Analyze each detailed circuit, clarify the connection between all levels in the circuit and the context of the signal in the circuit, and determine a scientific maintenance plan through careful consideration in combination with practical experience.
2. First machine damage, then circuit: electrical equipment is based on the principle of electrical machinery, especially the advanced equipment of mechatronics. Machinery and electronics cooperate organically in function, which is two parts of one whole. Often, mechanical parts are old and crude, affecting the electrical system and equipment management, and the functions of many electrical parts do not work. Therefore, don't be confused by surface phenomena. The shortcomings of the electrical system are not all electrical problems, but may be caused by the shortcomings of mechanical parts. Therefore, it often gets twice the result with half the effort to repair the shortcomings of the mechanical system first and then eliminate the shortcomings of the electrical part.
3. First simple, then messy: repair defects should be handled by the simplest and best method, and then messy and accurate methods. When sweeping away the shortcomings, first sweep away the intuitive, obvious and simple common shortcomings, and then sweep away the difficult and untreated shortcomings.
4. Difficult and miscellaneous problems: electrical equipment is often simple. The same type of disadvantage is "common problem". Because common problems are common and the accumulation experience is rich, it can be cleaned up quickly. In this way, we can concentrate on cleaning up rare, difficult and eccentric diseases all the time, simplify the process, reduce the scale and improve the maintenance speed.
5. External commissioning before internal treatment: external refers to various switches, buttons, sockets and indicator lights exposed outside the seal of the electrical equipment. Internal refers to the printed circuit board, components and various connecting wires inside the shell or seal of electrical equipment. External debugging first and then internal processing, that is, without disassembling the electrical equipment, use the switches, travel buttons and buttons on the electrical equipment panel to debug and view, so as to reduce the scale of defects. First, eliminate the defects caused by external parts, and then repair the defects in the machine, so as to avoid unnecessary disassembly as far as possible
6. Power on measurement before power on test: first, repair the electrical equipment when power is off; then repair the electrical equipment when power is on. During the maintenance of many defective electrical equipment, it cannot be powered on immediately, otherwise it will artificially expand the scale of defects and burn more components, resulting in unnecessary loss. Therefore, before the defective machine is powered on, measure the resistance first and take necessary measures before it can be powered on for maintenance.
7. Common circuit first and then special circuit: if the common circuit of any electrical system has shortcomings, its energy and information cannot be transmitted and distributed to each detailed special circuit, and the functions of the special circuit and equipment management China Union will not work. If the power supply of an electrical equipment fails, the whole system cannot operate normally, and the energy and information transmitted to various special circuits cannot be completed. Therefore, following the order of sharing circuits first and then special circuits, the shortcomings of electrical equipment can be eliminated quickly and accurately.
8. Summarize the experience and improve the shortcomings of power electrical equipment. After the maintenance of any defective electrical equipment, you should record the defect phenomenon, reason, maintenance pass, skills and experience in a special notebook, learn and grasp the electromechanical theoretical knowledge of various new electrical equipment, understand its operation principle, accumulate repair experience, and upgrade your experience to theory. Only under the guidance of theory and detailed analysis can we eliminate shortcomings accurately and quickly. Only in this way can we cultivate ourselves into an expert in repairing electrical defects.
Contact: Zheng Tieqiang
Company: Yueqing Xingong Electric Appliance Factory
Address: behind the office building of Longgen village, Liushi Town, Yueqing City, Zhejiang Province